In addition to obtaining explicit business knowledge, but to pay attention to the tacit knowledge mining.
With the economic environment changes and changes in business, management is also evolving, from the initial large industrial era Tyler (Tyler) to the evolution of the scientific management era of knowledge economy knowledge management. Frankly, many domestic enterprises with Taylor's scientific management of the basic standards are not reached, then the number of management across the stage now in China, promote knowledge management necessary?
Present, including China, the Asia-Pacific industrial economy is in a profound structural adjustments. General industrial products, including consumer durables appeared more obvious, "stagflation," the situation on a more rigorous business requirements.
MIT Sloan School of Management professor Eric von Hippel, a survey of enterprises shows that in the contemporary corporate profits growth, technological innovation factors accounted for 40%, 20% of resource factors, the per capita capital and 15% increase in factor economies of scale factors accounted for 13%, improving the quality of labor force 12%.
The findings should cause concern entrepreneurs: the past, we believe that economies of scale and increased per capita capital, is the master of creating profit. But in both of them and only 28%, while innovation and improved quality of workers, accounted for 52%! This is what we face in the world economy. This is the business of the state of our competitors. The answer to the question before, also no doubt that the.
If the business knowledge to profit growth as the main capital, then of course the focus of management is knowledge itself. Knowledge management is the enterprise-related knowledge to collect, assess, useful knowledge of the business to low-cost, efficient access to useful knowledge in the enterprise distribution, integration, technological innovation activities of enterprises, protection of knowledge and knowledge property strategies into the daily management of the main areas of business, which belong to the enterprise knowledge management. In summary, the knowledge of groups of individuals, will manifest the hidden knowledge, the internalization of external knowledge, the organization of knowledge products, the formation of a knowledge management process.
Access to explicit knowledge
The so-called "explicit knowledge" refers to all tangible media carrying some knowledge. It is characterized by: the ability to express in words and numbers to specific information, scientific formulas, standardized procedures and networks of all media, from direct access to knowledge. On the acquisition of knowledge, companies can consider the following methods:
Purchase and lease
To obtain "useful knowledge", the most direct and effective way is probably to buy. Buy now popular throughout the organization in the foreign business community, that business growing as access to knowledge and expertise acquired other companies. In 1995 IBM paid 3.5 billion acquisition of Lotus (Lotus), Lotus book value equivalent to 250 million U.S. dollars of 14 times. Clearly, IBM out of this "high price" not for computers and other Lotus products to create the reality of income, but reflects the company's software applications on Lotus's unique knowledge of the valuation.
China has the strength of some large companies, the purchase of knowledge, science and technology to small businesses that vigorous hand, the industry formed "strategic alliance" is really a shortcut to one of the access to knowledge.
In addition to purchase, the "useful knowledge" of the lease is now a better choice. This approach has two dimensions. First, Chinese enterprises on the domestic key universities and research institutes, financial support, to obtain promising results of the first commercial power. However, any effort to make research and development, there is always risk, research is difficult to predict when or whether the reward. However, from research and development of nature, compensation may come at any time, its valuation of the study should also be from the lowest income to total the rental value of knowledge. Another aspect, you can rent hire individuals who have the knowledge, leased the source of knowledge. For a project to hire a "knowledgeable intellectuals" enterprises in the coastal areas the situation everywhere.
Use of proprietary resources
Enterprises within the organization hopes to create "useful knowledge", the most common method is to set up business research and development institutions. However, no research to obtain economic benefits takes time, and may be more difficult to know when we can get results. Therefore, companies tend to emphasize the recent profits with research and development of the enterprise support agencies to reduce costs. For this dilemma, the Chinese enterprises should be considered in two ways: First, government investment in the industry for the establishment of industrial centers in the enterprise, this approach can reduce the pressure on corporate profits, but also access to more valuable results. Second, we must improve the quality of the individual enterprise managers to avoid short-sighted or "material did not know."
A lot of negative cases in this area, the 20th century 70's at Xerox (Xerox) of Palo Alto Research Center, researchers found that the key elements of the computer graphics interface, but Xerox's managers may be forming this independent technology research access to much, does not correctly evaluate "useful knowledge", and then taken to a contempt of attitude. Apple Inc. (Apple Computer Inc.) Manager Stev Jobs to visit the center, the understanding of its importance and potential value, collected by Xerox ignored for years, but the results of investment research used Xerox Apple, to create a Macintosh personal computer.
The establishment of a learning organization
Enterprises to establish a "learning organization", is an effective absorption of "explicit knowledge" is a good way. In order to establish a learning organization, entrepreneurs should consider implementing the following five steps:
* Entrepreneur of the "system thinking." Entrepreneurs consider the development, often continue to answer the following five questions: companies now go? Enterprises to achieve their goals? What companies achieve their goals? How to organize enterprise? How to detect business process and change process? The five position of enterprises with good operability.
* Encourage staff to self-control life. As the company's profit growth increasingly depends on the skills and knowledge for human use and management and motivation is vital. Now, more and more people recognize the training and mobility of talented employees the importance and seriousness of the enterprise. However, the achievements made with the staff to give timely incentives, as in the enterprise to provide a staff to design their own career planning sites.
* Challenge existing thinking organization. Such thinking may be the management challenge, it may be the production model, and even the views of the industry. Entrepreneurs should pay attention to listen and encourage employees to management and product launches on the different views, can not take this as their own work experience in "trouble." These conflicts and contradictions may be useful is the source of innovation. Organization has a staff feedback and suggestions for the mechanisms and approaches, than the mechanisms and means there is no such enterprises have more opportunities for development.
* The establishment of a common organizational vision. The "common" refers to the entrepreneurs and the general staff to have a vision. To this end, the minimum requirements of the entrepreneurs is to keep a clear, inspiring stage business goals, so that most employees are excited by means of a clear way to achieve objectives.
* To promote enterprise group learning. Can be considered adequate to enable employees to use the Internet to the "knowledge platform"; actively carry out internal training, development of human resources for the training and tailor-made courses, staff development, "professional intellectual"; for the establishment of a number of absorption with knowledge of specific industries Bennett channels, including: regular authority to invite the industry to guide and exchange business; and research institutions and universities enter into cooperative projects, etc.; qualified enterprises can also consider setting outside the window, collect industry technology trends and feasible projects; commissioned internationally renowned consulting firm that provides business management solutions.
Tap the tacit knowledge
The so-called "implicit knowledge", refers to the physical media from direct access to knowledge. Implicit knowledge can not see, not easy to express, mostly subjective insights, intuition and premonition of knowledge that is rooted in individual action and individual experiences, but also rooted in the individual business ideals, values and emotional . This implicit knowledge and explicit knowledge is more than "useful", because the tacit knowledge reflected in the individual market, the real judge. MIT Sloan School of Management professor Eric von Hippel in the summer of 1996 on different sources of industry innovation survey: scientific equipment manufacturing industry, innovation comes from users was 77%, which is a major product innovation in this area almost and product users reflect the direct and indirect. The implicit knowledge must be obtained by a valid mining, mining companies must have a business of "implicit knowledge" of the system and model.
The establishment of enterprise knowledge platform
Implicit knowledge must rely on appropriate occasions, in different posts under brainstorming between members can express, this expression is the tacit knowledge into explicit operational knowledge to go through.
Mining the tacit knowledge of the system to do detailed design and planning, and promote the organization up to create such a platform, we call it "enterprise knowledge platform." In this platform, individuals and businesses as a whole to create new knowledge, new knowledge will spread to the entire organization, and then integrate into the manufacturing process and product service process.
The establishment of the enterprise knowledge platform are: the establishment of enterprise open access and apply knowledge of the strategic environment, the specific operation can consider the following:
* Knowledge of public enterprises so that enterprises can take advantage of all the employees and the business objectives directly related to knowledge.
* Company guarantees employees a certain place can not charge too much effort to obtain such knowledge, and widely advertised within the enterprise. This requires companies to create conditions for smooth corporate knowledge dissemination channels.
* Company continued to promote the learning of new knowledge and research and development. Learning new knowledge in various ways, and new knowledge can not be limited to very narrow areas of the profession, because today the production of knowledge into practice, not all aspects of knowledge integration without integration of the product. Enterprises should actively use social knowledge platform, such as the Internet, to the enterprise platform built on the social basis of public knowledge platform.
* To develop a regular exchange system within the enterprise, fixed and elegant meeting place. Intellectuals in China both in academic and cultural exchanges or exchanges, there is a certain "old boy" tendencies and passive. Therefore, it provides a centralized communication system is necessary, this group communication, will help the externalization of tacit knowledge and communication, also help entrepreneurs access to innovative ideas.
Integration means to tap the tacit knowledge
Implicit knowledge of the mining method, the "integration" plays a decisive role. Purpose through the integration of the innovation can be complex and even contradictory to introduce the innovation process, the formation of a new collaboration. Integration can have different views of people come together to jointly research a project, forcing them to arrive at a certain time a common answer.
A typical case is the automatic bread maker Matsushita development. Panasonic invited the three groups of "intellectuals": First, the original rice machine manufacturer personnel, the second is to create bread baking machine of the staff, three are manufacturing food processing machines personnel. The automatic bread maker of the first group of integrated computer control expertise, experience in the second group and third group induction heating rotary motor technology. This intends to create complexity and contradiction, in the integration of new products in development, so that similar products have the concept of a fundamental shake. Development process in the toaster, the three groups involving a total of 1,400 people, at first they said was "almost completely different language", it is difficult to communicate, but they finally finish the product development, to create a completely different from similar products revolutionary product.
But this fusion Xu Yao Zai Shi Jian and energy on the numerous inputs into Erjuqunti Cheng Yuan Yaonenggongxiang knowledge, Hezuo working, this was no easy matter, 鏈?7 proposals for Chinese Qi Ye use and reference:
* Enterprise managers must seek to understand the value of knowledge, are willing to invest in its production process, if even that necessary inputs are not understand, integrate out of the question;
* Consciously cultivate and identify enterprise "knowledge workers", who is often said of technological innovation expert, to work for these people to return in time are provided for incentives;
* The difference between a technical problem for a positive view of treatment, rather than to produce it as the source of conflict, because it just may be the source of innovation;
* Produce a clear knowledge of business managers need to encourage and collaborate with all stakeholders share the same objectives, methods, different as far as possible, using different from the "balance sheet" to measure the real value of knowledge to better use and protection of the enterprise "self- of knowledge. " This includes the creation of knowledge workers is different from the normal incentives to take and measure the value of the company's knowledge;
* To improve the adaptability of enterprises. Adaptability of enterprises there are two basic factors: first, to use the new organization and strategy to use their internal resources and market knowledge to adapt to external changes; second, changes in the organization of the higher absorption capacity. Entrepreneurs have to train more and have served many different roles intellectual skills, quick thinking and encourage employees to change their work, to accumulate and develop their own skills, so that their overall organization of the "useful knowledge" sufficient adaptation and absorption;
* Organization and use of informal networks. Here refers to the external network is not public knowledge networks such as the Internet, nor is the internal LAN, but rather an informal self-organization within the enterprise network. Of course, these networks due to the different aspects of common interests may come together to make the network become "cool" and formal. Entrepreneur's responsibility to enable this network to attract business people become more formal. Enterprises should provide sufficient time and physical space dedicated to the establishment of such networks. This space is not necessarily like the laboratory or library, the greater may be those of the corporate elite can regularly meet and Talk of meeting space.
* Attention may be gained from the customer's knowledge. Comes from the customer's knowledge may be a customer sales advice, or even a complaints, but this view may be the essence of the market with improved products. Therefore, marketers must establish a system of regular briefings, forcing marketers pay attention to information from customers, and to filter information in their mind, processing, and then communicated through certain channels and forums for business leaders and businesses throughout the organization.
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